Sometimes, you may need or want to add additional information to a noun in a sentence for clarity, context, or style. A defining relative clause usually comes immediately after the noun it describes. You can use that to substitute who or which this is the key that opens the door. The years when the flower children thrived were the 1960s. The relative pronouns who, which, whose, and that are used to introduce these clauses. Relative clauses are a type of subordinate clauses, used to provide explanation or information related to the accident, event or idea discussed previously. Relative pronouns are the words that introduce relative clauses. In defining clauses, we can omit the relative pronoun in the position of object. Defining relative clauses give us essential information information that tells us who or what we are talking about.
May 25, 2019 correct punctuation is essential in nondefining relative clauses. Relative clauses are nonessential parts of a sentence. For one, we use relative clauses to postmodify a noun. Are you using relative clauses properly in your speech and. We dont leave out the relative pronoun when it is the subject of the verb nor in nondefining relative clauses. Clause worksheets dependent and independent clauses. They are seperated by commas in writing, and by a pause on either side. Grammatik relative clauses and contact clauses 4 losungen exercise 1 a nick is a boy who is in my class. The information may be quite interesting and important to the larger conversation, but it is not essential for precise identification of the noun. It cannot be left out of the sentence without affecting the meaning. Defining and nondefining relative clauses relative clauses with prepositions gap fill text short text on a historic english castle with gaps for relative pronouns and where necessary prepositions. You can do the exercises online or download the worksheet as pdf. I broke the plate which that was a wedding present. The house which mozart was born in is now a museum.
The relative pronoun can be the subject or the object of the relative clause. In the worksheet, students first need to decide whether the relative clause can be reduced or not, then make the necessary changes in the sentence to make it shorter. Relative clauses and contact clauses englischtipps. This is done to provide specifics about the person or thing we are referring to in a sentence. Tenses printable pdf worksheets for english language learners intermediate level b1. Grammar quiz relative clauses complete these sixteen sentences to score your knowledge of relative clauses. I met rebecca in town yesterday, which was a nice surprise.
Note that that can be used in informal english instead of whowhomwhich but it is never used after commas, i. We dont need a relative pronoun, because the first word in the relative clause is not a verb. Second in importance is the clause and the best way to think about clauses is as part of a. Rowling is the author who wrote the harry potter books. We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses. They specify a noun or pronoun in the main clause and are necessary if we want to understand the. The relative pronouns antecedent determines gender and number, while the pronouns function within the dependent clause determines the case see the examples below.
Defining relative clauses exercise 3 make one sentence by changing the sentence in italics into a defining relative clause. May 02, 2019 relative clauses the most important unit of grammatical organization in linguistics is the sentence. German is a language which ive found hard to learn. Learn about how to use relative clauses or adjective clauses and practice on youtube page1. With this kind of relative clause, we use commas, to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Children rewrite each sentence into two independent clauses, eliminating the relative clauses. In german, as opposed to english, the relative pronoun cannot be omitted. We are looking at her the child at whom we are looking has. Defining and nondefining relative clauses english grammar. Relative clauses are a way of giving more information about a person, thing, place, event, etc. A relative clause is a sentence describing a noun, however, it cannot be used separately. You may remove the relative pronoun and reduce your sentence in certain conditions.
The ability to use relative clauses easily is important to all english learners, but perhaps even more important to those wanting to use english in their workplaces. We cant drop the relative pronoun in this kind of clause, even if the relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. Relative clauses b1 pdf worksheets english practice. Defining clauses defining clauses specifydefine which personthinganimal is meant. Jan 17, 2020 relative clauses are used to describe the noun naming the process or position when discussing tasks that need to be completed, or explaining how certain things work. You may delete the relative pronoun and the be verb when. It comes after the noun defined by a basic sentence. Mr brown, whom we studied english with, is a very nice. English esl relative clauses worksheets most downloaded. Relative clauses give us information about the person or thing mentioned. A clause of this kind is essential to clear understanding of the noun. A dog that eats too much pizza will soon develop pepperoni breath. In the example below, the clause modifies a noun phrase the years expressing a time, a temporal location. Relative pronouns english grammar today cambridge dictionary.
Students with enough math and english skills will be admitted. Relative clauses in english exercises advanced level esl. Note that you have to use commas in some of the sentences. Relative pronouns and clauses in english grammar exercises. A collection of english esl relative clauses worksheets for home learning, online practice, distance learning and english classes to teach about. Relative clauses can be used to join two sentences together, or to identify people and things and give more information about them. They can act as the subject or the object of the relative clause. That cannot be used as a relative pronoun in a nonrestrictive relative clause. In the grammar chart below, you can see the main differences between them.
A clause of this kind is essential to the clear understanding of the. Heres a list of all the relative clause exercises on the site. These type of clauses give essential information about a thing or person. When writing relative adjective clauses, students often are confused about when to use who, whom, and whose look at the following examples to understand the difference between them.
That relative pronoun cannot be preceded by a preposition or a comma. The pronoun is required, even when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause. Relative clauses defining and nondefining test english. Relative pronouns relative pronouns introduce relative clauses. The letter thatwhich peter has sent to you is in the drawer. In some of the sentences, you can leave off the relative pronoun. Nondefining relative clauses non defining clauses add extra information. It is very easy to identify a relative clause as it always starts with a relative pronoun such as who, whose, that, which, when, etc. Students who have enough math and english skills will be admitted. Defining relative clauses these describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. In informal styles, we often leave out the relative pronoun. The relative pronoun can also refer to the object of a preposition.
We also use relative clauses to give more information about a person, thing or situation. An adjective clause, which is also called a relative clause, is a type of dependent clause that functions as an adjective in a sentence. Nondefining relative clauses english esl worksheets for. The information is essential in order to understand what or who is being referred to. B combine each pair of sentences with a relative clause.
For each sentence, you will have to decide if the relative clause is essential or nonessential and then use commas accordingly. It usually starts with a relative adverb when, why, where or a relative pronoun who, whom, which, that, whose which often functions as the subject of the clause. Relative clauses are complex sentences, and in the ielts examination writing complex sentences plays a very important role, and you also have the knowledge of using these complex sentences in the right places. Now, the first step in making an adjective clause is finding a word in each sentence that refers to the same thing. A relative or adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun who, whom, whose, which, or that or occasionally a relative. Relative clauses defining relative clauses grammar. Here the clause who just walked in is an example of a relative clause. Relative pronouns and relative clauses learnenglish. It is important to distinguish between them because it affects the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause.
It is also called adjective clause because it defines a noun. We only do this in defining relative clauses, and when the relative pronoun is the object of the verb. In informal style it always comes later in the relative clause. Grammatik relative clauses and contact clauses 3 exercise 4 fill in the correct relative pronoun who, which or whose. Relative clauses are also called adjective clauses. We could miss out the relative and the meaning would still be clear. Some types of relative clauses can be reduced the relative pronoun and maybe other words can be removed. This type of relative clause merely provides extra information. In relative clauses, just as in dependent clauses, the finite verb goes to the end. Nondefining relative clauses also called nonidentifying relative clauses or nonrestrictive relative clauses give additional information on something, but do not define it. If the nondefining relative clause occurs in the middle of a sentence, a comma is put before the relative pronoun and at the end of the clause. If the nondefining relative clause occurs at the end of a sentence, a comma is put before the relative pronoun. We dont use that in nondefining relative clauses, so we need to use which if the pronoun refers to a thing, and who if it refers to a person. Free printable pdf grammar worksheets, quizzes and games, from a to z, for eflesl teachers.
You must decide if the relative clause is essential or nonessential and then use commas accordingly. There are two types of relative clauses, defining and nondefining. They are most often used to define or identify the noun that precedes them. There are three different categories of relative clauses. Nondefining relative clauses defining relative clauses these describe the preceding noun in such a way to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. Using when as a relative pronoun when is used for places, of course.
Heres a worksheet on reduced relative clauses for you to check your students on reduced relative clauses. To know which dog we are talking about, we must have the information in the relative clause. A relative clause is essential when you need the information it provides. First, lets consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause. Both that and which can be used in this relative clause and the pronoun can be left out because there is a subject. The uros people make fires, which they use for cooking. In nondefining relative clauses, you cannot replace other pronouns with that.
The man who wants to talk to you is waiting for you. Defining relative clauses these describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns. You also cannot leave out the relative pronoun in nondefining relative clauses, in the way you sometimes can in defining relative clauses. Next weekend im going to glasgow, where my sister lives. The child at whom we are looking has sunk into her mattress she shouldnt sleep in a bed whose mattress is so soft she needs to find someone who can rescue her from her mattress notice how the relative clause always follows directly after the noun it describes the child has sunk into her mattress. Relative clauses learnenglish teens british council. Defining relative clauses 1 in pdf here defining relative clauses 2 in pdf here defining relative clauses 3 in pdf here defining relative clauses 4 in pdf here go to the main relative clauses explanation page here. Understanding relative clauses a relative or adjective clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun who, whom, whose, which, or that or occasionally a relative adverb usually when, where, or why.
They may add meaning, but if they are removed, the sentence will still function grammatically. You might reduce the clause to make your writing more concise or to add sentence variety. Relative clauses, using where, when, whose lessons for. A restrictive relative clause provides essential information about the noun to which it refers. Relative clauses and example sentences, using whose, when. Relative pronouns relative pronouns are the words that introduce relative clauses. Put the relative pronoun in brackets if you can leave it out. Defining clauses restrictive clauses a defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about. In informal styles, the preposition comes after the verb. English grammar relative clauses relative clauses introduction there are two types of relative clauses. A relative clausealso called an adjective or adjectival clausewill meet three requirements. Relative clauses academic assistance and tutoring centers. Relative clauses click here to download a pdf of this lesson. Functioning similarly to an adjective, a relative clause also known as an adjective clause is a type of dependent clause that describes a noun.
There are two broad types of relative clauses in english. One way to do this is to add an adjective for example, red ball. Relative clauses are clauses starting with the relative pronouns who, that, which, whose, where, when. Relative clauses function as subordinate or dependent clauses and therefore cannot stand alone as complete sentences. August 24, 20 a relative clause is a type of subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun. Well use the examples above to demonstrate how to reduce both restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. Complete these sixteen sentences to score your knowledge of relative clauses. Relative clauses worksheet 1 relative pronouns use the relative pronouns in the box to complete the sentences whom that which where when whose 1. Relative clauses tell us more about people and things. This independent clause worksheet pdf thrives on the tremendous upgrade and practice it offers young learners.1539 59 1090 740 11 1217 1179 57 311 672 1420 832 443 341 1118 967 897 451 1241 816 787 1594 62 466 1396 777 587 344 641 484 45 440 1023 1419 756